Passive Smoking and Cervical Cancer
In 1977, Winkelstein first reported the hypothesis that smoking is a risk factor for cervical cancer. In 2004, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified tobacco smoking as a cause of cervical cancer.
According to Masafumi Koshiyama, Professor, Department of Women's Health, Graduate School of Human Nursing, The University of Shiga, the risk of HPV infection at the cervix in smoking women was reported to be 1.905 times greater than that in non-smoking women.
Several hypotheses concerning how tobacco smoke contributes to cervical carcinogenesis have been reported.
- Tobacco smoking inhibits the local immune response to HPV.16,17
- Carcinogenic HPV-infected cells are exposed to tobacco smoke carcinogens that cause DNA damage
- HPV oncoproteins block apoptosis and cell cycle arrest
Kim, J.Y, from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, South Korea said secondhand smoke exposure at home was significantly related to cervical cancer This finding is consistent with most studies, which have shown that secondhand smoke exposure is positively correlated with cervical cancer Some studies have also reported passive smoking as an independent risk factor.
Cornelia L. Trimble from The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, did a research and provide evidence that passive smoking is a risk factor for cervical neoplasia. The presence of cotinine in cervical mucus of nonsmoking women who are passively exposed to smoke from cigarettes make it reasonable to postulate that passive smoking can contribute to carcino-genesis through the same potential pathways as active smoking, including genotoxic and immunomodulatory effects.
"Public health researchers already knew that passive smoking increased heart disease and lung cancer. What we found in addition is that both active and passive smoking increases a woman's risk for developing cervical neoplasia. Our study results are one more piece of evidence that should encourage smokers to quit and warn non-smokers who live with smokers to decrease their secondhand smoke exposure. Exposure to secondhand smoke can be reduced, and taking steps to reduce exposure may help to prevent cervical cancer," said Dr. Alberg, researcher at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and School of Medicine.
Dr Vijay is a Gynae Oncology Specialists in Malaysia currently practices at KPJ Klang Specialist Hospital, Selangor. At Caring Gynae, we provide the most up-to-date diagnostic (tests) and treatment for gynae cancers. Our cancer specialists will come together and work with you to assess your condition and plan and deliver the most effective treatment. Your care plan will be custom-made to treat your specific cancer and the needs most important to you.